基本事項(五事) 孫子

凡そ此の五者は、将は聞かざることなきも、これを知る者は勝ち、知らざる者は勝たず。
 故に、これを校ぶるにするに計を以てして、其の情を索む。
 曰わく、①主 孰れか賢なる、将 孰れか能なる、②天地 孰れか得たる、③法令 孰れか行なわる、④兵衆 孰れか強き、士卒 孰れか練[なら]いたる、⑤賞罰 孰れか明らかなると。
 吾、これを以て勝負を知る。


飯山一郎氏訳 完全版 孫子

故經之以五事,校之以計,而索其情,一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰將,五曰法。
The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field. These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

故校之以計,而索其情。曰:主孰有道,將孰有能,天地孰得,法令孰行,兵眾孰強,士卒孰練,賞罰孰明,吾以此知勝負矣。將聽吾計,用之必勝,留之;將不聽吾計,用之必敗,去之。 Laying Plans: Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise: (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment? By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat - let such a one be dismissed!

夫未戰而廟算勝者,得算多也;未戰而廟算不勝者,得算少也;多算勝,少算不勝,而況於無算乎?吾以此觀之,勝負見矣。
Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

The Art of War


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